Worldwide Analysis: The Global Presentation of Retinoblastoma

Daphna Landau Prat, Marcia Zondervan, Ido Didi Fabian*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Retinoblastoma is the most common childhood eye cancer with approximately 8000 new patients annually worldwide, most of whom live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Early detection and urgent referral to a specialized retinoblastoma treatment center is of utmost importance in order to save life, salvage the eye, and, in selected cases, retain vision. Advances in retinoblastoma screening, detection, and management in high-income countries have resulted in dramatic improvement in disease outcome in the last 50 years. However, these changes have not been observed in LMICs, where patients present late, with advanced disease, some with distant metastasis at time of initial diagnosis. In addition, the rate of familial retinoblastoma cases is reported to be significantly lower in LMICs, probably because many do not reach a childbearing age. Given that retinoblastoma is a curable disease, these data are concerning and warrant intervention at national and international levels.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGlobal Perspectives in Ocular Oncology
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9783031082504
ISBN (Print)9783031082498
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Global
  • National income level
  • Presentation
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Tumor


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