Retinoblastoma is the most common childhood eye cancer with approximately 8000 new patients annually worldwide, most of whom live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Early detection and urgent referral to a specialized retinoblastoma treatment center is of utmost importance in order to save life, salvage the eye, and, in selected cases, retain vision. Advances in retinoblastoma screening, detection, and management in high-income countries have resulted in dramatic improvement in disease outcome in the last 50 years. However, these changes have not been observed in LMICs, where patients present late, with advanced disease, some with distant metastasis at time of initial diagnosis. In addition, the rate of familial retinoblastoma cases is reported to be significantly lower in LMICs, probably because many do not reach a childbearing age. Given that retinoblastoma is a curable disease, these data are concerning and warrant intervention at national and international levels.
- National income level