Seminal advances in anticancer therapy as well as supportive care strategies have led to improved survival rates, posing an emphasis on preserving an optimum quality of life after cancer treatment. This recognition has paved the way to an increasing research of long-term side effects, both clinical and preclinical and to an ongoing design of a supportive care system to evaluate and treat long-term adverse effects of anticancer treatments, including the impact on fertility. As with many adverse effects induced by anticancer treatments, the literature comprised mostly clinical data with regard to chemotherapy-induced gonadotoxicity, while understanding of the biological mechanism is lagging. The impact of anticancer treatments on female fertility depends on the women's age at the time of treatment, the chemotherapy protocol, the duration, and total cumulative dose administered. Several suggested mechanisms that underlie chemotherapy-induced gonadotoxicity have been described. This review illustrates the clinical evidence, as well as its supportive preclinical studies, while proceeding from the 'bedside to the bench work' and provides an insight to what lies behind chemotherapy-induced gonadotoxicity.