Generation of wave structures by a two-dimensional (2D) object (laser beam) moving in a 2D two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with a velocity greater than the two sound velocities of the mixture is studied by means of analytical methods and systematic simulations of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations. The wave pattern features three regions separated by two Mach cones. Two branches of linear patterns similar to the so-called "ship waves" are located outside the corresponding Mach cones, and oblique dark solitons are found inside the wider cone. An analytical theory is developed for the linear patterns. A particular dark-soliton solution is also obtained, its stability is investigated, and two unstable modes of transverse perturbations are identified. It is shown that for a sufficiently large flow velocity, this instability has a convective character in the reference frame attached to the moving body, which makes the dark soliton effectively stable. The analytical findings are corroborated by numerical simulations.
|Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
|Published - 3 Mar 2009