RNA flexibility is reflected in its heterogeneous conformation. Through direct visualization using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the adenosylcobalamin riboswitch aptamer domain as an example, we show that a single RNA sequence folds into conformationally and architecturally heterogeneous structures under near-physiological solution conditions. Recapitulated 3D topological structures from AFM molecular surfaces reveal that all conformers share the same secondary structural elements. Only a population-weighted cohort, not any single conformer, including the crystal structure, can account for the ensemble behaviors observed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). All conformers except one are functionally active in terms of ligand binding. Our findings provide direct visual evidence that the sequence-structure relationship of RNA under physiologically relevant solution conditions is more complex than the one-to-one relationship for well-structured proteins. The direct visualization of conformational and architectural ensembles at the single-molecule level in solution may suggest new approaches to RNA structural analyses.