Vertical Foreclosure Using Exclusivity Clauses: Evidence from Shopping Malls

Itai Ater*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Exclusive contracts are one of the most controversial topics in the economic analysis of antitrust. Yet, very few empirical papers analyze the determinants and the consequences of exclusive contracts. In this paper, I study exclusive contracts between hamburger restaurants and Israeli shopping malls, in which mall owners commit to prohibiting additional hamburger restaurants from entering their malls. I investigate the determinants of these exclusive contracts and examine how such contracts affect the number of hamburger restaurants and their sales. I show that exclusive contracts are less likely to be adopted in larger malls, in malls that face more competition from other malls, and in malls that opened before 1993, when McDonald's and Burger King entered the Israeli market. I then use the mall's opening year-before or after 1993-as an instrumental variable to estimate a negative effect of exclusive contracts on the number of restaurants and on total mall hamburger sales. My findings are generally consistent with anti-competitive vertical foreclosure models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)620-642
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Economics and Management Strategy
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2015


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