Venous Malformations Sclerotherapy: Outcomes, Patient Satisfaction and Predictors of Treatment Success

Boris Khaitovich, Elinor Kalderon*, Orna Komisar, Michal Eifer, Daniel Raskin, Uri Rimon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the results of sclerotherapy for venous malformations, with emphasis on patient satisfaction, complications and predictors of positive response to treatment. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and nine patients were treated with ethanol sclerotherapy for venous malformations in our center between the years 2000 and 2014. All of them were sent a self-assessment questionnaire for evaluation of their satisfaction and treatment complications. In total, 153 patients (mean age 21, range 6 weeks to 67 years) responded to the questionnaire. We analyzed clinical and imaging data from the medical records of these patients. Results: Sixty-four (42%) patients had venous malformations in the lower extremities, 35 (23%) in head and neck regions, 33 (22%) in the trunk, 14 (9%) in the upper extremities and 5 (3%) in the buttock and genitalia. Complete relief of swelling, pain, functional and esthetic complaints was reported in 23%, 22%, 17% and 12% of patients, respectively. Thirty-eight (25%) patients reported being very satisfied with treatment outcomes, 55 (36%) were satisfied, 49 (32%) were not satisfied and 11 (7%) were very unsatisfied. We did not find significant correlations between patient satisfaction and demographics characteristics, lesion location, lesion size, tissue involvement or total sclerosant quantity. The rate of class 3 complications was 7% and that of class 4 complications was 2%. Conclusion: Ethanol sclerotherapy is an effective treatment for venous malformations. Nonetheless, this treatment has a significant complication rate. Patient satisfaction is independent of lesion characteristics and is not as high as may be expected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1695-1701
Number of pages7
JournalCardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2019


  • Patient satisfaction
  • Sclerotherapy
  • Venous malformation


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