Variants in PSMB9 and FGR differentially affect Parkinson's disease risk in GBA and LRRK2 mutation carriers

Shachar Shani, Orly Goldstein*, Mali Gana-Weisz, Anat Bar-Shira, Avner Thaler, Tanya Gurevich, Anat Mirelman, Nir Giladi, Roy N. Alcalay, Avi Orr-Urtreger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Recent studies found an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and alterations in the innate immune system. However, whether the involvement of this system in two of the known genetic forms of PD, GBA-PD and LRRK2-PD, and in patients who do not carry these mutations is different, is yet to be determined. We aimed to test if genetic variations in the innate immune genes are differentially associated with PD in these subgroups. Methods: Innate immune genes were identified and classified into sub-lists according to Reactome pathways. Whole-genome-sequencing (WGS) was performed on 201 unrelated Ashkenazi-Jewish (AJ) PD patients including 104 GBA-PD, 32 LRRK2-PD, and 65 non-carriers-PD (NC-PD). To identify genes with different burden between these subgroups of PD, gene-based Sequence kernel association optimal unified test (SKAT-O) analysis was performed on innate immune pathways. Candidate variants within the significant genes were further genotyped in a cohort of 1200 unrelated, consecutively recruited, AJ-PD patients, and to evaluate their association with PD-risk their allele frequencies were compared to AJ-non-neuro cases in gnomAD database, in a stratified and un-stratified manner. Results: SKAT-O analysis showed significantly different burden for PSMB9 (GBA-PD versus NC-PD) and FGR (GBA-PD versus LRRK2-PD). Two candidate variants in PSMB9 showed an association with GBA-PD-risk and NC-PD-risk while one FGR variant showed an association with LRRK2-PD-risk. Conclusion: Our data supports differential involvement of innate immunity risk alleles in PD and emphasizes the differences between the GBA- and LRRK2-PD subgroups.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105398
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
StatePublished - Jun 2023


FundersFunder number
Biogen, Inc
Chaya Charitable Fund


    • FGR
    • GBA
    • Innate immunity
    • LRRK2
    • PSMB9
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Whole-genome-sequencing


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