Purpose: This study evaluated age-related maternal outcomes of vacuum-assisted vaginal deliveries (VAD). Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all nulliparous women with singleton VAD in one academic institution. Study group parturients were maternal age ≥ 35 years and controls < 35. Power analysis revealed that 225 women/group would be sufficient to detect a difference in the rate of third- and fourth-degree perineal tears (primary maternal outcome) and umbilical cord pH < 7.15 (primary neonatal outcome). Secondary outcomes were maternal blood loss, Apgar scores, cup detachment, and subgaleal hematoma. Outcomes were compared between groups. Results: From 2014 to 2019, 13,967 nulliparas delivered at our institution. Overall, 8810 (63.1%) underwent normal vaginal delivery, 2432 (17.4%) instrumental, and 2725 (19.5%) cesarean. Among 11,242 vaginal deliveries, 10,116 (90%) involved women < 35, including 2067 (20.5%) successful VAD vs. 1126 (10%) women ≥ 35 years with 348 (30.9%) successful VAD (p < 0.001). Rates of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations were 6 (1.7%) with advanced maternal age and 57 (2.8%) among controls (p = 0.259). Cord pH < 7.15 was similar: 23 (6.6%) study group and 156 (7.5%) controls (p = 0.739). Conclusion: Advanced maternal age and VAD are not associated with higher risk for adverse outcomes. Older, nulliparous women are more likely to undergo vacuum delivery than younger parturients.
- Advanced maternal age
- Third- and fourth-degree perineal tears
- Umbilical cord acidemia
- Vacuum-assisted delivery