Vacuum arc deposition: Early history and recent developments

Raymond L. Boxman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


Vacuum arc deposition (VAD) was first investigated at the end of the 19th Century by A.W. Wright and T.A. Edison as mirror coatings and seed layers for phonogram replication molds, respectively. The early research anticipated later developments, including cathode shielding, multi-layer coatings, substrate motion, and hybrid processing. VAD has become an established industrial art for producing hard, wear-resistant and decorative coatings. Sophisticated coatings, including tertiary compounds and multi-layers, are increasingly used. Filtered vacuum arc deposition and hot electrode vacuum arcs are increasingly investigated to obtain high-quality, macroparticle-free films. Improved filtered sources, including large rectangular filters, have been demonstrated. Besides tool coatings, films for metallizing integrated circuits and protecting magnetic media are being developed.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2000


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