MicroRNAs are key players in the regulation of gene expression by posttranscriptional suppression. They are involved in physiological processes, and thus their deregulation may contribute to the development of diseases and progression of cancer. Virus-encoded microRNAs and microRNAs of host origin play an important role in controlling the virus life cycle and immunity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vaccinia virus (VACV) infection on the expression of host-encoded microRNAs. A marked general suppression of most microRNAs in the infected cells was observed within 24 hours after VACV infection of a number of cell types. We demonstrate that this suppression was associated with abrogation of expression of the Dicer1 enzyme, which is a key enzyme in the generation of microRNAs.