Use of expansion cohorts in phase I trials and probability of success in phase II for 381 anticancer drugs

Diogo D.G. Bugano, Kenneth Hess, Denis L.F. Jardim, Alona Zer, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Lillian L. Siu, Albiruni R.A. Razak, David S. Hong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Evaluate the association between the use of phase I expansion cohorts (ECs) and drug performance in phase II as well as time to approval by the FDA. Experimental Design: We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE for single-agent dose-finding adult oncology phase I trials published in 2006 to 2011 and subsequent phase II trials. Successful phase II trials were those that met their primary endpoints. Dates of approval were obtained from the Drugs@FDA website in April 2014. A logistic regression model was used to determine the associations between variables and success in phase II. Results: We identified 533 phase I trials evaluating 381 drugs; 112 drugs had at least one phase I trial with an expansion cohort. Phase I trials with expansion cohorts of two to 20 patients were associated with a higher rate of successful phase II trials than those with no expansion cohort [48% vs. 27%; OR, 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1–4.0; P = 0.037]. Phase II success rates were the same for expansion cohort with two to 20 and more than 20 patients (48% vs. 52%). Other positive associations were disease-specific trials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.9; P = 0.037), industry sponsorship (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5–5.7; P = 0.0024), and response rate of 6% to 20% (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.6–5.2; P = 0.0007). Drugs tested in phase I trials with expansion cohorts had a higher rate of 5-year approval (19% vs. 5%; HR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.2–8.8; P < 0.001). Conclusions: The use of expansion cohorts in phase I trials was associated with success of subsequent phase II trials. However confounders may play a role in this association.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4020-4026
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume23
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2017
Externally publishedYes

Funding

FundersFunder number
National Institutes of Health
National Cancer InstituteP30CA016672
National Center for Advancing Translational SciencesUL1 TR000371
University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

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