In this chapter, we present a summary of research that uses silicon to enhance the imaging resolution and to push it toward the region of nanoscopy. The silicon has a nonlinear effect called the plasma dispersionDispersioneffect (PDEPlasma Dispersion Effect (PDE)), which can be used instead of the fluorescent dyeFluorescent dyein order to realize a stimulated emission depletion (STED)Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED)like microscopic imaging configuration. The silicon can be encapsulated into nanoparticles while the encapsulation may be biocompatible and yield the first step toward label-freeLabel freebioimaging. The encapsulation may even be metallic to enhance the obtainable effect and to yield resolution enhancement at lower requirements from the pumpPumpbeamPump beam. The silicon can even be used directly as a waferWaferbut then the super-resolving imaging is mainly aimed at failure analysis of micro-electronic circuitry. When the silicon is encapsulated with metallic layer or when it is in the form of a wafer, while being illuminated with a pumpPumpbeamPump beam(inVisible wavelengthsvisible wavelengthWavelengthbeing absorbed by the silicon) it modifies the imaging point spreadFunctionpoint spread (PSF)function (PSF) of the probeProbebeamProbe beam(a near infra-red wavelength) into a doughnutDoughnut-like shape, through the utilization of the PDEPlasma Dispersion Effect (PDE). This modified PSF has spatial components smaller than the diffraction limitDiffraction limit, and by scanning the sample with itSuper resolution, super resolutionResolutionsuper-can be achieved.
|Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering