Urban spatial patterns and heat exposure in the Mediterranean City of Tel Aviv

Moshe Mandelmilch, Michal Ferenz, Noa Mandelmilch, Oded Potchter

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    This study aims to examine the effect of urban spatial patterns on heat exposure in the city of Tel Aviv using multiple methodologies, Local Climate Zones (LCZ), meteorological measurements, and remote sensing. A Local Climate Zone map of Tel Aviv was created using Geographic Information System (GIS), and satellite images were used to identify the spatial patterns of the urban heat island (UHI). Climatic variables were measured by fixed meteorological stations and by mobile cross-section. Surface and wall temperatures were obtained by satellite images and a hand-held infrared camera. Meteorological measurements at a height of 2 m showed that during midday the city is ~3.6 °C warmer than the surrounding rural area. The cooling effect of parks was evident only during the hot hours of the day (9:00-17:00). Land Surface Temperature in the southern part of the city was hotter by ~7-9 °C compared to the northern part due to lack of urban vegetation. Hot spots were found in compact midrise forms (LCZ 2) that are not ideal from the climatological perspective. Whereas compact low-rise forms (LCZ 3) were less heat vulnerable. The results of this study suggest that climatologists can provide planners and architects with scientific insight into the causes of and solutions for urban climatic heat exposure.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number963
    Issue number9
    StatePublished - Sep 2020


    • Heat stress
    • Land Surface Temperature
    • Local Climatic Zone (LCZ)
    • Urban Heat Island (UHI)
    • Urban geometry


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