Upslices, Downslices, and Secret-Sharing with Complexity of 1. 5 n

Benny Applebaum*, Oded Nir

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

A secret-sharing scheme allows to distribute a secret s among n parties such that only some predefined “authorized” sets of parties can reconstruct the secret, and all other “unauthorized” sets learn nothing about s. The collection of authorized/unauthorized sets can be captured by a monotone function f: { 0, 1 } n→ { 0, 1 }. In this paper, we focus on monotone functions that all their min-terms are sets of size a, and on their duals – monotone functions whose max-terms are of size b. We refer to these classes as (a, n)-upslices and (b, n)-downslices, and note that these natural families correspond to monotone a-regular DNFs and monotone (n- b) -regular CNFs. We derive the following results. 1.(General downslices) Every downslice can be realized with total share size of 1. 5 n+o(n)< 2 0.585n. Since every monotone function can be cheaply decomposed into n downslices, we obtain a similar result for general access structures improving the previously known 2 0.637n+o(n) complexity of Applebaum, Beimel, Nir and Peter (STOC 2020). We also achieve a minor improvement in the exponent of linear secrets sharing schemes.2.(Random mixture of upslices) Following Beimel and Farràs (TCC 2020) who studied the complexity of random DNFs with constant-size terms, we consider the following general distribution F over monotone DNFs: For each width value a∈ [ n], uniformly sample ka monotone terms of size a, where k= (k1, …, kn) is an arbitrary vector of non-negative integers. We show that, except with exponentially small probability, F can be realized with share size of 2 0.5n+o(n) and can be linearly realized with an exponent strictly smaller than 2/3. Our proof also provides a candidate distribution for “exponentially-hard” access structure. We use our results to explore connections between several seemingly unrelated questions about the complexity of secret-sharing schemes such as worst-case vs. average-case, linear vs. non-linear and primal vs. dual access structures. We prove that, in at least one of these settings, there is a significant gap in secret-sharing complexity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2021 - 41st Annual International Cryptology Conference, CRYPTO 2021, Proceedings
EditorsTal Malkin, Chris Peikert
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Pages627-655
Number of pages29
ISBN (Print)9783030842512
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021
Event41st Annual International Cryptology Conference, CRYPTO 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 16 Aug 202120 Aug 2021

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12827 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Conference

Conference41st Annual International Cryptology Conference, CRYPTO 2021
CityVirtual, Online
Period16/08/2120/08/21

Funding

FundersFunder number
ERC-StG-2014-2020639813 ERC-CLC
European Union’s Horizon 2020 Programme
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme639813
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme

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