The problem of finite wave propagation in a nonlinearly thermoviscoelastic thin rod whose viscoelastic properties are temperature dependent is considered. The rod is subjected to mechanical or thermal time-dependent loading. The coupled equations of motion and heat conduction are based on a constitutive theory of nonisothermal nonlinear viscoelasticity which is described by single-integral terms only. This theory is reformulated here for the uniaxial motion of a compressible rubbery material. The solution of the field equations is obtained by a numerical procedure which is developed for the present case and is able to handle successfully shock waves whenever they built up in the nonlinear material.