UMPU and alternative tests for association in 2 × 2 tables

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The use of the uniformly most powerful among the unbiased (UMPU) test was recently suggested for the study of gametic association between two polymorphic loci as an alternative to the Fisher's exact test (Zapata and Alvarez, 1997, Annals of Human Genetics 61, 71-77). However, the proposed test is not UMPU for two-sided alternatives. In this study, we present the UMPU test, discuss criticisms against the use of randomized tests, and compare the power of several tests. We show that, in many practical cases, the use of the UMPU test is less than desirable and propose the alternative adjusted-more extreme tables (A-MET) and the equal-tails (ET) tests. We suggest that some of the general arguments against the use of randomized tests can be alleviated by a newly proposed extended p-value definition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-538
Number of pages4
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2001


  • 2 × 2 tables
  • A-MET test
  • ET test
  • Extended p-value
  • Fisher's exact test
  • Gametic association
  • Tocher's test
  • Two-sided tests
  • UMPU test
  • X test


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