Ultrasound for diagnosis of postpartum retained products of conception—How accurate we are?

Yael Yagur*, Liron Jurman, Omer Weitzner, Nissim Arbib, Ofer Markovitch, Zvi Klein, Yair Daykan, Ron Schonman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Postpartum retained products of conception (RPOC) can cause short- and long-term complications. Diagnosis is based on ultrasound examination and treated with hysteroscopy. This study evaluated the size of RPOC that can be related to a positive pathology result for residua. Materials and methods: This retrospective cohort study included women who underwent hysteroscopy for postpartum RPOC diagnosed by ultrasound, 4/2014–4/2022. Demographics, intrapartum, sonographic, intraoperative, and post-operative data were retrieved. We generated a ROC curve and found 7 mm was the statistically sonographic value for positive pathology for RPOC. Data between women with sonographic RPOC ≤ 7 mm and > 7 mm were compared. Positive and negative predictive values were calculated for RPOC pathology proved which was measured by ultrasound. Results: Among 212 patients who underwent hysteroscopy due to suspected RPOC on ultrasound, 20 (9.4%) women had residua ≤ 7 mm and 192 (90.6%) had residua > 7 mm. The most common complaint was vaginal bleeding in 128 cases (60.4%); more so in the residua > 7 mm group (62.5% vs. 40%, p =.05). Among women with residua ≤ 7 mm, the interval from delivery to hysteroscopy was longer (117.4 ± 74.7 days vs. 78.8 ± 68.8 days, respectively; p =.02). Positive pathology was more frequent when residua was > 7 mm. PPV for diagnosis of 7 mm RPOC during pathology examination was 75.3% and NPV 50%. Conclusions: Sonographic evaluation after RPOC showed that residua > 7 mm was statistically correlated with positive RPOC in pathology and PPV of 75% and NPV of 50%. Due to the high NPV and low complication rate of office hysteroscopy, clinicians should consider intervention when any RPOC are measured during sonographic examination to reduce known long-term complications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number572
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Hysteroscopy
  • PPV
  • Positive predictive value
  • RPOC
  • Retained products of conception


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