Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy

Anil Kapur*, Harold David McIntyre, Moshe Hod

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hyperglycemia is common during pregnancy, involving multisystem adaptations. Pregnancy-induced metabolic changes increase insulin resistance. Pregnancy-induced insulin resistance adds to preexisting insulin resistance. Preexisting pancreatic β-cell defect compromises the ability to enhance insulin secretion, leading to hyperglycemia. Women with type 2 DM have similar rates of major congenital malformations, stillbirth, and neonatal mortality, but an even higher risk of perinatal mortality. In utero type 2 DM exposure confers greater risk and reduces time to development of type 2 DM in offspring. Preconception care to improve metabolic control in women with type 2 diabetes is critical.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)511-531
Number of pages21
JournalEndocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2019


  • Management
  • Pregnancy hyperglycemia
  • Type 2 diabetes


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