Two-terminal floating-gate transistors with a low-power memristive operation mode for analogue neuromorphic computing

Loai Danial, Evgeny Pikhay, Eric Herbelin, Nicolas Wainstein, Vasu Gupta, Nimrod Wald, Yakov Roizin, Ramez Daniel, Shahar Kvatinsky*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Metal–oxide memristive integrated technologies for analogue neuromorphic computing have undergone notable developments in the past decade, but are still not mature enough for very large-scale integration with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Although non-volatile floating-gate synapse transistors are a more advanced technology embedded within CMOS processes, their performance as analogue resistive memories remains limited. Here, we report a low-power, two-terminal floating-gate transistor fabricated using standard single-poly technology in a commercial 180 nm CMOS process. Our device, which is integrated with a readout transistor, can operate in an energy-efficient subthreshold memristive mode. At the same time, it is linearized for small-signal changes with a two-orders-of-magnitude resistance dynamic range. Our device can be precisely tuned using optimized switching voltages and times, and can achieve 65 distinct resistive levels and ten-year analogue data retention. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of a selector-free integrated memristive array in basic neuromorphic applications, including spike-time-dependent plasticity, vector-matrix multiplication, associative memory and classification training.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)596-605
Number of pages10
JournalNature Electronics
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


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