Purpose: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in prostate cancer. The BRCA1 gene encodes a transcription factor with tumor suppressor activity. The involvement of BRCA1 in prostate cancer, however, has not yet been elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to examine the functional correlations between BRCA1 and the IGF system in prostate cancer. Experimental Design: An immunohistochemical analysis of BRCA1 was done on tissue microarrays comprising 203 primary prostate cancer specimens. In addition, BRCA1 levels were measured in prostate cancer xenografts and in cell lines representing early stages (P69 cells) and advanced stages (M12 cells) of the disease. The ability of BRCA1 to regulate IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression was studied by coexpression experiments using a BRCA1 expression vector along with an IGF-IR promoter-luciferase reporter. Results: We found significantly elevated BRCA1 levels in prostate cancer in comparison with histologically normal prostate tissue (P < 0.001). In addition, an inverse correlation between BRCA1 and IGF-IR levels was observed in the androgen receptor (AR) - negative prostate cancer-derived P69 and M12 cell lines. Coexpression experiments in M12 cells revealed that BRCA1 was able to suppress IGF-IR promoter activity and endogenous IGF-IR levels. On the other hand, BRCA1 enhanced IGF-IR levels in LNCaP C4-2 cells expressing an endogenous AR. Conclusions: We provide evidence that BRCA1 differentially regulates IGF-IR expression in AR-positive and AR-negative prostate cancer cells. The mechanism of action of BRCA1 involves modulation of IGF-IR gene transcription. In addition, immunohistochemical data are consistent with a potential survival role of BRCA1 in prostate cancer.