True Time Delay in Phased Arrays

Ruth Rotman, Moshe Tur, Lior Yaron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

157 Scopus citations


This paper reviews the topic of true time delay (TTD) and its importance and implications in wideband imaging phased arrays. The paper describes an early analog version of TTD using the 'Rotman lens,' discusses various architectures, and talks about photonic implementations. Also emphasized are the differences in design between narrowband arrays which are calibrated at individual frequencies and wideband imaging arrays where TTD is necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7394105
Pages (from-to)504-518
Number of pages15
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2016


  • Phased arrays
  • photonic beamformers
  • true time delay (TTD)


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