Trends in management and outcomes of colon cancer in the United States over 15 years: Analysis of the National Cancer Database

Nir Horesh, Sameh Hany Emile, Zoe Garoufalia, Rachel Gefen, Peige Zhou, Steven D. Wexner*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Management of colon cancer has changed over the last few decades. We assessed the trends in management and outcomes using the US National Cancer Database (NCDB). A retrospective analysis of all patients with colonic adenocarcinoma between 2005 and 2019 was conducted. The cohort was divided into three equal time periods: Period 1 (2005–2009), Period 2 (2010–2014), and Period 3 (2015–2019) to examine treatment and outcomes trends. The primary outcome was 5-year overall survival (OS). The study included 923,275 patients. A significant increase in patients with stage IV disease was noted in Period 3 compared to Period 1 (47.9% vs. 27.9%, respectively), whereas a reciprocal reduction was seen in patients with locally advanced disease (stage II: 20.8%–12%; stage III: 14.5%–7.7%). Use of immunotherapy significantly increased from 0.3% to 7.6%. Mean 5-year OS increased (43.6 vs. 42.1 months) despite the increase in metastatic disease and longer time from diagnosis to definitive surgery (7 vs. 14 days). A reduction in 30-day readmission (5.1%–4.2%), 30- (3.9%–2.8%), and 90-day mortality (7.1%–5%) was seen. Laparoscopic and robotic surgery increased from 45.8% to 53.1% and 2.9% to 12.7%, respectively. Median postoperative length of hospital stay decreased by 2 days. Rate of positive resection margins (7.2%–6%) and median number of examined lymph nodes (14–16) also improved. Minimally invasive surgery and immunotherapy for colon cancer significantly increased in recent years. Patient outcomes including OS improved over time.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • colonic adenocarcinoma
  • National Cancer Database
  • outcomes
  • treatment
  • trends

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