The subject of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURF) after renal transplantation has not been evaluated in the urologic literature. We retrospectively compared the outcome of renal transplantation in 8 patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate within ten days of renal transplantation with 8 patients who did not undergo prostate surgery. Patients were computer-matched for seven parameters. There was no statistically significant difference in patient survival (6 vs 7) and graft survival (56% vs 88%) between the two groups. However, there was a 25 percent incidence of major perioperative complications (including one mortality) in the TURP group directly attributable to the procedure. Transurethral resection of the prostate can be safely performed immediately after renal transplantation only if urine is sterile, antibiotics and steroids are carefully administered perioperatively, low-gravity irrigation is used, and hemostasis is meticulous.