Transmission electron microscopy at the quantum limit

Stewart A. Koppell, Yonatan Israel, Adam J. Bowman, Brannon B. Klopfer, M. A. Kasevich*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A number of visions for a new generation of dose-efficient electron microscopes have been advanced. These proposals, while inspired by quantum principles, make little contact with the broader field of quantum metrology. We discuss a framework for calculating the amount of information carried by each electron. This makes it possible to evaluate the potential effectiveness of any particular microscope architecture relative to the quantum limit for information per dose. In the case of phase imaging, we argue this limit is at least an order of magnitude beyond what is possible with aberration-free Zernike phase contrast.

Original languageEnglish
Article number190502
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number19
StatePublished - 9 May 2022
Externally publishedYes


FundersFunder number
National Science Foundation1656518
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation


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