The type III effector AvrXv3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) elicits a resistance response in the tomato line Hawaii 7981. To test whether similar genes participate in responses triggered by recognition of different avirulence proteins, we examined the effect of AvrXv3 expression on the plant transcriptome as compared to that of other avirulence proteins. By microarray analysis we monitored expression of approximately 8,600 tomato genes upon inoculation with isogenic Xcv strains differing only by the avrXv3 gene. Changes in transcript levels of 139 genes were observed within 8 h, and a massive shift in expression of 1,294 genes was detected at 12 h. Recognition of AvrXv3 modulated a large number of genes encoding transcription factors and signaling components. In addition, genes involved in defense and stress responses, lipid metabolism, protein degradation, and secondary metabolism were mainly up-regulated. Conversely, genes related to photosynthesis and protein synthesis were generally down-regulated. Many novel genes encoding proteins of unknown function were also identified. A comparison between AvrXv3-modulated genes and those differentially expressed in tomato plants recognizing other bacterial effectors revealed partial overlap and similar distribution in functional classes. The identification of tomato genes modulated by AvrXv3 expression paves the way for dissecting defense networks activated by recognition of this effector in resistant plants.
- Disease resistance
- Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria