Towards Genetic Dissection of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion: A Review of Genetic Variations Underlying the Phenotype in Humans and Future Directions

Osayd Zohud, Iqbal M. Lone, Kareem Midlej, Awadi Obaida, Samir Masarwa, Agnes Schröder, Erika C. Küchler, Aysar Nashef, Firas Kassem, Vadim Reiser, Gavriel Chaushu, Richard Mott, Sebastian Krohn, Christian Kirschneck, Peter Proff, Nezar Watted, Fuad A. Iraqi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Skeletal abnormalities and malocclusions have varied features that impact populations globally, impairing aesthetics and lowering life quality. The prevalence of the Skeletal Class III disease is the lowest among all angle malocclusions, with varied prevalence across nations. Environmental, genetic, and societal factors play a role in its numerous etiologies. In this study, we conducted a thorough search across the published data relating to quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the genes associated with Class III progression in humans, discussed these findings and their limitations, and proposed future directions and strategies for studying this phenotype. Methods: An inclusive search of published papers in the PubMed and Google Scholar search engines using the following terms: 1. Human skeletal Class III; 2. Genetics of Human skeletal Class III; 3. QTL mapping and gene associated with human skeletal Class III; 4. enriched skeletal Class-III-malocclusion-associated pathways. Results: Our search has found 53 genes linked with skeletal Class III malocclusion reported in humans, genes associated with epigenetics and phenomena, and the top 20 enriched pathways associated with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Conclusions: The human investigations yielded some contentious conclusions. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS), an epigenetics-wide association study (EWAS), RNA-seq analysis, integrating GWAS and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), micro- and small-RNA, and long non-coding RNA analysis in tissues connected to skeletal Class III malocclusion phenotype in tissues connected with the skeletal phenotype. Finally, we invite regional, national, and international orthodontists and surgeons to join this effort by contributing human samples with skeletal Class III malocclusion following the accepted Helsinki ethical protocol to challenge these phenomena jointly.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3212
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 2023


  • RNAseq analysis
  • epigenetics-wide association study (EWAS)
  • expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL)
  • genome-wide association study (GWAS)
  • micro and small RNA analysis
  • quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping


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