Total dose, fraction dose and respiratory motion management impact adrenal SBRT outcome

Ory Haisraely*, Ilana Weiss, Marcia Jaffe, Sarit Appel, Orit Person-Kaidar, Zvi Symon, Maoz Ben-Ayun, Sergi Dubinski, Yaacov Lawrence

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose/Objective(s): Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an effective treatment for oligometastatic disease in multiple sites. However, the optimal radiation dose for long-term local control of adrenal metastases has yet to be determined. The aim of this study is to evaluate outcomes of adrenal SBRT and to evaluate factors that correlate with local control. Materials/Methods: After IRB approval, a retrospective data review of patients treated with SBRT for adrenal metastases at a medical center in Israel between 2015 and 2021 was conducted. A biological effective dose was calculated using an alpha beta ratio of 10. Kaplan Meier and Cox regression were calculated using SPSS software to describe the hazard ratio for local control and survival. Results: 83 cases of adrenal SBRT were identified. The average age was 67 (range 42–92 years old). Non-small cell lung cancer was the primary site in 44 % of patients. A total of 70 % of the patients had oligometastatic disease (less than five lesions), and the rest were polymetastatic, responding to systemic therapy with oligo progression in the adrenal. The average gross tumor volume (GTV) was 42 ml. Respiratory control was applied in 88 % of cases; 49.3 % used 4-D/ITV, and 38.5 % used breath-hold or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with free breathing. On multivariable analysis, Dose above 75 Gy (biological effective Dose) (HR = 0.41, p = 0.031), Dose above 8 Gy per fraction (HR = 0.53p = 0.038), and breath-holds or CPAP (HR = 0.65, p = 0.047) were significant for local control. From multivariable analysis, we computed a predicted nomogram curve using seven clinical parameters to evaluate local control odds. Conclusion: In this single institution series reported to date, we found unilateral adrenal SBRT safe, yet bilateral treatment harbors a risk of adrenal insufficiency. Biological effective Dose > 75 Gy (BED), motion management with breath-hold or CPAP, and Dose per fraction > 8 Gy were the enhanced local controls. We propose a nomogram to help in decision-making regarding total Dose and Dose per fraction when treating adrenal SBRT.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100788
JournalClinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
StatePublished - Jul 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Adrenal
  • Fraction
  • Local control
  • Motion management
  • SBRT


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