TNT Loss: A Technical and Nontechnical Generative Cooperative Energy Loss Detection System

Netzah Calamaro, Michael Levy, Ran Ben-Melech, Doron Shmilovitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper describes an electricity technical/nontechnical loss detection method capable of loss type identification, classification, and location. Several technologies are implemented to obtain that goal: (i) an architecture of three generative cooperative AI modules and two additional non-cooperative AI modules for data knowledge sharing is proposed, (ii) new expert consumption-based knowledge of feature collaboration of the entire consumption data are embedded as features in an AI classification algorithm, and (iii) an anomaly pooling mechanism that enables one-to-one mapping of signatures to loss types is proposed. A major objective of the paper is an explanation of how an exact loss type to signature mapping is obtained simply and rapidly, (iv) the role of the reactive energy load profile for enhancing signatures for loss types is exemplified, (v) a mathematical demonstration of the quantitative relationship between the features space to algorithm performance is obtained generically for any algorithm, and (vi) a theory of "generative cooperative modules" for technical/nontechnical loss detection is located and mapped to the presented system. The system is shown to enable high-accuracy technical/nontechnical loss detection, especially differentiated from other grid anomalies that certainly exist in field conditions and are not tagged in the universal datasets. The "pooling" architecture algorithm identifies all other loss types, and a robotic process automation module obtains loss type localization. The system feeds from the entire smart metering data, not only the energy load profile. Other solutions, such as a stand-alone algorithm, have difficulty in obtaining low false positive in field conditions. The work is tested experimentally to demonstrate the matching of experiment and theory.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number18
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2022


  • smart grid
  • smart metering
  • technical and nontechnical loss (TNT loss)


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