Time of Birth and the Risk of Adverse Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes—A Retrospective Cohort Study

Anat Schwartz, Shiri Shinar*, Amit Iton-Schwartz, Ronella Marom, Dror Mandel, Ayelet Dangot, Ariel Many

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To determine whether in a labor floor housed continuously by senior physicians the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcome is affected by time of delivery. Methods: This retrospective cohort study, conducted at a tertiary medical center, assessed singleton term deliveries from 1 January 2011 to 30 January 2020. Participants were categorized based on delivery timing, correlating with nursing shifts, to evaluate perinatal outcomes. The primary endpoint included adverse maternal outcomes such as emergency Cesarean section, anal sphincter injuries, blood product transfusions, and postpartum surgeries (laparotomy/laparoscopy). Secondary outcomes focused on neonatal health indicators, including low Apgar scores, ICU admissions, respiratory issues, extended hospital stays, and neurological complications. Results: 87,863 deliveries were available for analysis with equal distribution during the day. The risk of adverse composite maternal outcome was highest during the evening (aOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.18–1.32) and lowest during the night (aOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88–0.99) compared to daytime deliveries. This difference was primarily driven by the highest rate of emergency CD in the evening. Neonatal outcomes were comparable, except for length of stay > 5 days, which was more frequent among newborns delivered during the evening and night shifts compared to the morning shift (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07–1.33 and aOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05–1.31, respectively). Conclusions: In term pregnancies, the evening shift is associated with the highest risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes despite physician seniority.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2952
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 2024


  • term pregnancy
  • time of birth


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