Time-lock puzzles are a mechanism for sending messages \to the future". A sender can quickly generate a puzzle with a solution s that remains hidden until a moderately large amount of time t has elapsed. The solution s should be hidden from any adversary that runs in time significantly less than t, including resourceful parallel adversaries with polynomially many processors. While the notion of time-lock puzzles has been around for 22 years, there has only been a single candidate proposed. Fifteen years ago, Rivest, Shamir and Wagner suggested a beautiful candidate time-lock puzzle based on the assump-Tion that exponentiation modulo an RSA integer is an \in-herently sequential" computation. We show that various avors of randomized encodings give rise to time-lock puzzles of varying strengths, whose se-curity can be shown assuming the mere existence of non-parallelizing languages, which are languages that require cir-cuits of depth at least t to decide, in the worst-case. The existence of such languages is necessary for the existence of time-lock puzzles. We instantiate the construction with dif-ferent randomized encodings from the literature, where in-creasingly better efficiency is obtained based on increasingly stronger cryptographic assumptions, ranging from one-way functions to indistinguishability obfuscation. We also ob-serve that time-lock puzzles imply one-way functions, and thus the reliance on some cryptographic assumption is nec-essary. Finally, generalizing the above, we construct other types of puzzles such as proofs of work from randomized encod-ings and a suitable worst-case hardness assumption (that is necessary for such puzzles to exist.