Time dependent changes in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular risk

Assi Milwidsky, Shaye Kivity, Eran Kopel, Robert Klempfner, Anat Berkovitch, Shlomo Segev, Yechezkel Sidi, Ilan Goldenberg, Elad Maor*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the correlation between changes in HDL-C and subsequent cardiovascular events. Methods Study population comprised 13,037 subjects free of cardiovascular disease with a mean follow up of 6 ± 3 years. Low HDL-C was defined as < 40 mg/dl for men and < 50 mg/dl for women. Participants were divided into three groups based on HDL-C levels at the first and second baseline visits: persistently-low HDL-C (LL); persistently-high HDL-C (HH); and those with high HDL-C in a one visit only: intermittently high HDL-C (LH/HL). The primary endpoint was the first occurrence of a cardiovascular event. Results A total of 529 (4.1%) incident events occurred during follow-up. HDL-C levels increased significantly between the two landmark visits (47.5 ± 12.6 vs. 48.1 ± 12.2, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the cumulative probability of cardiovascular events at 6 years was highest among subjects in the LL group (7.6%), and similar among LH/HL and HH groups (3.3% and 4%, respectively; log-rank p = 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis, with HDL-C as time-dependent covariate, showed that subjects with persistently low HDL-C during follow up experienced a 51% increased cardiovascular risk compared with subjects with persistently high HDL-C (p = 0.026). Subjects with intermittently high HDL-C during follow up experienced similar risk to those with persistently high HDL-C (HR = 1.02; p = 0.89). Conclusions Variations in HDL-C levels during follow-up are associated with subsequent cardiovascular risk. Patients who retain low HDL-C levels are at the cardiovascular highest risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-299
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Volume173
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular risk
  • HDL cholesterol
  • Time dependent changes

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