Tilapia Lake Virus Vaccine Development: A Review on the Recent Advances

Japhette E. Kembou-Ringert*, Dieter Steinhagen, John Readman, Janet M. Daly, Mikolaj Adamek*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Tilapia tilapinevirus (or tilapia lake virus, TiLV) is a recently emerging virus associated with a novel disease affecting and decimating tilapia populations around the world. Since its initial identification, TiLV has been reported in 17 countries, often causing mortalities as high as 90% in the affected populations. To date, no therapeutics or commercial vaccines exist for TiLV disease control. Tilapia exposed to TiLV can develop protective immunity, suggesting that vaccination is achievable. Given the important role of vaccination in fish farming, several vaccine strategies are currently being explored and put forward against TiLV but, a comprehensive overview on the efficacy of these platforms is lacking. We here present these approaches in relation with previously developed fish vaccines and discuss their efficacy, vaccine administration routes, and the various factors that can impact vaccine efficacy. The overall recent advances in TiLV vaccine development show different but promising levels of protection. The field is however hampered by the lack of knowledge of the biology of TiLV, notably the function of its genes. Further research and the incorporation of several approaches including prime–boost vaccine regimens, codon optimization, or reverse vaccinology would be beneficial to increase the effectiveness of vaccines targeting TiLV and are further discussed in this review.

Original languageEnglish
Article number251
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • fish vaccine
  • tilapia lake virus
  • vaccination
  • vaccines in aquaculture


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