Within the framework of the mean-field hydrodynamic model of a degenerate Fermi gas (DFG), we study, by means of numerical methods and variational approximation (VA), the formation of fundamental gap solitons (FGSs) in a DFG (or in a BCS superfluid generated by weak interaction between spin-up and spin-down fermions), which is trapped in a periodic optical-lattice (OL) potential. An effectively one-dimensional (1D) configuration is considered, assuming strong transverse confinement; in parallel, a proper 1D model of the DFG (which amounts to the known quintic equation for the Tonks-Girardeau gas in the OL) is considered too. The FGSs found in the first two bandgaps of the OL-induced spectrum (unless they are very close to edges of the gaps) feature a (tightly bound) shape, being essentially confined to a single cell of the OL. In the second bandgap, we also find antisymmetric tightly bound subfundamental solitons (SFSs), with zero at the midpoint. The SFSs are also confined to a single cell of the OL, but, unlike the FGSs, they are unstable. The predicted solitons, consisting of ∼104-105 atoms, can be created by available experimental techniques in the DFG of 6Li atoms.