Thyroid-related orbitopathy: A multidisciplinary perspective

Sang Rog Oh, Ayelet Priel, David B. Granet, Leah Levi, Bobby S. Korn, Don O. Kikkawa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Advances in immunologic and genetic research have revealed a newer understanding of the pathophysiology of thyroid-related orbitopathy. In addition, oxidative stress and its deleterious effects may contribute to the progression of thyroid-related orbitopathy. Yet clear perception of its risk factors and exact etiology have not been fully appreciated. Targeted medical and surgical therapies have allowed for better treatment and rehabilitation from this unremitting disease. However, a universal clinical assessment tool and protocol would greatly improve referral patterns to specialists and aid in clinical study outcome measures. Like other systemic disease processes, a multidisciplinary approach allows optimal care for patients in all stages of thyroid-related orbitopathy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-53
Number of pages11
JournalExpert Review of Ophthalmology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Graves'disease
  • botulinum toxin
  • decompression
  • external-beam radiation
  • optic neuropathy
  • rituximab
  • thyroid eye disease
  • thyroid-related orbitopathy


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