Thymic Epithelial Neoplasms: Tumor-Node-Metastasis Staging

Marcelo F.K. Benveniste, Sonia L. Betancourt Cuellar, Brett W. Carter, Chad D. Strange, Edith M. Marom

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Thymic epithelial neoplasms are a group of malignant tumors that includes thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Although several staging systems have been developed over the years for use with these cancers, they have been interpreted and implemented in a nonuniform manner. Recently, the International Association for the study of Lung Cancer and the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group developed a tumor-node-metastasis staging system that has been universally accepted and correlates with patient survival and outcomes. Although pathologic staging is determined by histologic examination of the resected tumor, imaging plays an important role in clinical staging and is important for informing therapeutic decisions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-192
Number of pages10
JournalRadiologic Clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Staging
  • Thymic carcinoma
  • Thymic epithelial neoplasms
  • Thymic neuroendocrine tumors
  • Thymoma
  • TNM


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