Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in children. It is reportedly the most common malignancy associated with thromboembolism in the pediatric age group. Over the last 2 decades, venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been increasingly diagnosed among pediatric ALL patients with an estimated incidence ranging from about 5% (for symptomatic cases) to about 30–70% (following sequential imaging studies in asymptomatic children). The etiology is multifactorial and may stem from alterations of the hemostatic system following various chemotherapy protocols (including use of L-Asparaginase), the presence of central venous lines (CVL), as well as comorbidities, e.g. inherited thrombophilia risk factors. Most symptomatic thrombotic events occur in the upper venous system or in the central nervous system (CNS). Prospective studies on the establishment of guidelines for treatment or prevention are lacking. The following review will address the epidemiology, etiology and risk factors for thrombosis, describe the currently available evidence, and address issues associated with diagnosis and treatment.
|State||Published - Apr 2018|
- Pediatric CVL