Three-dimensional face recognition

Alexander M. Bronstein*, Michael M. Bronstein, Ron Kimmel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An expression-invariant 3D face recognition approach is presented. Our basic assumption is that facial expressions can be modelled as isometries of the facial surface. This allows to construct expression-invariant representations of faces using the bending-invariant canonical forms approach. The result is an efficient and accurate face recognition algorithm, robust to facial expressions, that can distinguish between identical twins (the first two authors). We demonstrate a prototype system based on the proposed algorithm and compare its performance to classical face recognition methods. The numerical methods employed by our approach do not require the facial surface explicitly. The surface gradients field, or the surface metric, are sufficient for constructing the expression-invariant representation of any given face. It allows us to perform the 3D face recognition task while avoiding the surface reconstruction stage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5-30
Number of pages26
JournalInternational Journal of Computer Vision
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Expression-invariant 3D face recognition
  • Facial expressions
  • Isometry invariant
  • Multidimensional scaling


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