Three-dimensional electromechanical mapping: Imaging in the operating room of the future

Gil Bolotin*, Tamir Wolf, Frederik H. van der Veen, Robert Shachner, Yuval Sazbon, Daniel Reisfeld, Rona Shofti, Roberto Lorusso, Shlomo Ben-Haim, Gideon Uretzky

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Three-dimensional electromechanical mapping has previously been shown to be a clinically important tool for cardiac imaging and intervention. We hypothesized that this technology may be beneficial as an intraoperative modality for assessing cardiac hemodynamics and viability during cardiac surgery. We report here the use of this technology as an imaging modality for intraoperative cardiac surgery. Methods. The tip of a locatable catheter connected to an endocardial mapping and navigating system is accurately localized while simultaneously recording local electrical and mechanical functions. Thus the three-dimensional geometry of the beating cardiac chamber is reconstructed in real time. The system was tested on 6 goats that underwent acute dynamic cardiomyoplasty and on 5 dogs that underwent left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Results. The electromechanical mapping system provided an accurate three-dimensional reconstruction of the beating left ventricle during cardiomyoplasty. After the wrapping procedure, significant end-diastolic area reduction was noted in the base and mid parts of the heart (948 ± 194 mm2 vs 1245 ± 33 mm2, p = 0.021; and 779 ± 200 mm 2 vs 1011 ± 80 mm2, p = 0.016). The area of the cross-section of the apex did not change during the operation. Acute infarcted tissue was characterized 3 days after LAD ligation by concomitant deterioration in both electrical and mechanical function. Conclusions. By providing both a clear view of the anatomical changes that occur during cardiac surgery, and an accurate assessment of tissue viability, electroanatomic mapping may serve as an important adjunct tool for imaging and analysis of the heart during cardiac surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S1083-S1089
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


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