Three-dimensional droplets of swirling superfluids

Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Boris A. Malomed, Leticia Tarruell, Lluis Torner

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A method for the creation of three-dimensional (3D) solitary topological modes, corresponding to vortical droplets of a two-component dilute superfluid, is presented. We use the recently introduced system of nonlinearly coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations, which include contact attraction between the components, and quartic repulsion stemming from the Lee-Huang-Yang correction to the mean-field energy. Self-trapped vortex tori, carrying the topological charges m1=m2=1 or m1=m2=2 in their components, are constructed by means of numerical and approximate analytical methods. The analysis reveals stability regions for the vortex droplets (in broad and relatively narrow parameter regions for m1,2=1 and m1,2=2, respectively). The results provide a scenario for the creation of stable 3D self-trapped states with the double vorticity (m1,2=2). The stable modes are shaped as flat-top ones, with the space between the inner hole, induced by the vorticity, and the outer boundary filled by a nearly constant density. On the other hand, all modes with hidden vorticity, i.e., topological charges of the two components m1=-m2=1, are unstable. The stability of the droplets with m1,2=1 against splitting (which is the main scenario of possible instability) is explained by estimating analytically the energy of the split and unsplit states. The predicted results may be implemented, exploiting dilute quantum droplets in mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates.

Original languageEnglish
Article number013612
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number1
StatePublished - 12 Jul 2018


FundersFunder number
Severo Ochoa Program
Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
US-Israel) Science Foundation2015616
National Science Foundation
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme
European Commission641122
Israel Science Foundation1286/17


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