Three-dimensional biomimetic head model as a platform for thermal testing of protective goggles for prevention of eye injuries

Rinat Friedman, Ayelet Haimy, Amit Gefen*, Yoram Epstein

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background: The rate of eye injury is steadily rising during military conflicts of the century, with thermal burns being the most common type of injury to the eyes. The present study focuses on assessing the heat resistance properties of military protective goggles using three-dimensional (3D) finite element head modeling fitted with the tested protective gear. Methods: A computational thermal impact was applied onto a 3D biomimetic human head model fitted with two goggle models - sports (Type 1) and square (Type 2). The resultant temperature of the eye tissues and the thermal injury thresholds were calculated by using the modeling, hence allowing to determine the protective efficacy of the goggles objectively, in a standardized, quantitative and cost-effective manner. Findings: Both types of goggles had a dramatic protective effect on the eyes. The specific goggle geometry had no notable effect on the level of protection to the inner tissues against the thermal insult. At the skin level goggles reduced temperatures by ~64% under the impact zone, with only a mild difference (10 °C) between the goggles. Interpretation: Little limitations on the shape and geometry of goggles were observed and any structure of goggles can provide an adequate protection against a thermal insult (per se) to inner cranial tissues, assuming the lenses are wide and thick enough to block direct skin contact of the heat insult. It was shown that our 3D biomimetic human head model provides a practical and cost-effective tool for determining the performance level of goggles with different attributed (i.e., shapes and thermal properties).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35-41
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Biomechanics
StatePublished - Apr 2019


FundersFunder number
Medical Corps of the Israel Defense Forces
Immune Deficiency Foundation
International Dragonfly Fund4440592886, 4440789254, 4440698400
Ministry of Defense


    • Biomimetic
    • Goggles
    • Head model
    • Ocular damage
    • Optic nerve trauma
    • Thermal injury


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