Several theories of learning and development are presented: nativism, behaviorism, structuralism, information processing, the naive theories approach, the sociohistorical approach, and two interstitial theories-a neo-Piagetian and a nonuniversal developmental theory. I claim that the notions of learning and development are not fixed and agreed on. Instead, they are defined by the theory in which they are embedded. The aspects of the various theories are discussed with respect to educational practice. Tensions between academic psychology and educational practice about learning and development are also discussed. The articles that comprise this special issue are presented within the theoretical frameworks of learning and development.