The conserved bacterial anticodon nuclease (ACNase) RloC and its phage-excluding homolog PrrC comprise respective ABC-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and ACNase N-and C-domains but differ in three key attributes. First, prrC is always linked to an ACNase silencing, DNA restriction-modification (R-M) locus while rloC rarely features such linkage. Second, RloC excises its substrate's wobble nucleotide, a lesion expected to impede damage reversal by phage transfer RNA (tRNA) repair enzymes that counteract the nick inflicted by PrrC. Third, a distinct coiled-coil/zinc-hook (CC/ZH) insert likens RloC's N-region to the universal DNA damage checkpoint/repair protein Rad50. Previous work revealed that ZH mutations activate RloC's ACNase. Data shown here suggest that RloC has an internal ACNase silencing/activating switch comprising its ZH and DNA-break-responsive ATPase. The existence of this control may explain the lateral transfer of rloC without an external silencer and supports the proposed role of RloC as an antiviral contingency acting when DNA restriction is alleviated under genotoxic stress. We also discuss RloC's possible evolution from a PrrC-like ancestor.