The translation procedure of low-level laser therapy in acute ischemic stroke: A nonpharmaceutics noninvasive method

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Abstract

The low-level laser treatment is based on the theory of photon energy absorption by delivery of a selected wavelength of light energy. The transcranial low-level laser device is an appliance which facilitates the insertion of the beam through body cavities. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was shown to have a direct effect on adenosine diphosphate (ADP), regulation of the inducible transcription factor 1 and the heatshock protein 70, plus having an antiapoptotic effect. In the ischemic brain, LLLT has an effect on nitric oxide synthase (NOS), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Two very well-designed animal studies were performed in order to examine the efficacy of LLLT treatment on induced stroke in animals-New Zealand RSCEM rabbit model and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats. The design can be accepted as being the standard recommended model for a nonpharmacological, noninterventional study. However, the time of efficacy was different in both studies-favorable effect after 6 h, but not after 24 h in the rabbit model, and no effect on the early stage and significant better outcome after 24 h in the rats. Translated human clinical studies (NEST1 and NEST2) were designed to confirm the rabbit study hypothesis and showed limited positive findings. The assumption of delayed effect of LLLT was not examined. It would be recommended that an additional study be performed to examine the translational process of the rat study. Problematic issues surrounding this data were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTranslational Stroke Research
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Target Selection to Clinical Trials
PublisherSpringer New York
Pages721-743
Number of pages23
ISBN (Electronic)9781441995308
ISBN (Print)9781441995292
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2012

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