The three wars of Bernard Lewis

Martin Kramer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The career of Bernard Lewis was punctuated by three wars: World War II, the Cold War, and what he himself called “the crisis of Islam.” The article seeks to demonstrate that for Lewis, these wars formed a continuum, the common thread being the struggle to defend freedom and democracy against the forces of tyranny.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-245
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Middle East and Africa
Issue number3
StatePublished - 3 Jul 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Arabs
  • Bernard Lewis
  • Cold War
  • Democracy
  • Freedom
  • Iraq War
  • Islam
  • War on Terror
  • World War II


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