The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: Distribution and characterization according to etiologies

Daniel Shepshelovich, Chiya Leibovitch, Alina Klein, Shirit Zoldan, Gai Milo, Tzippy Shochat, Benaya Rozen-Zvi, Anat Gafter-Gvili, Meir Lahav

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose To determine the distribution of etiologies for the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in hospitalized patients and to characterize patients according to the different etiologies. Methods A single-center retrospective study including all patients diagnosed with SIADH in a large community hospital and tertiary center between 1.1.2007 and 1.1.2013. Two physicians reviewed every patient's medical file for predetermined relevant clinical data. Results The study cohort included 555 patients. The most common etiologies were malignancies and medication-induced SIADH, followed by idiopathic SIADH, pulmonary infections, pain and nausea, and central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Subgroup analysis according to etiology showed that CNS disorders were associated with more severe episodes of SIADH. Patients with idiopathic SIADH were older than patients with a specific diagnosis, had a lower urine osmolality, and required less treatment with hypertonic saline. Long-term survival was determined primarily by SIADH etiology rather than hyponatremia severity, with hazard ratios for death of up to 7.31 (95% CI 4.93-10.82, p < 0.001) for patients with malignancy-associated SIADH as compared to patients with idiopathic SIADH. Hyponatremia grade at short-term follow-up was also predictive for long-term survival (HR 1.42 per grade, 95% CI 1.21-1.66, p < 0.001). Conclusions Patients with SIADH have different characteristics and a different prognosis according to SIADH etiology. Serum sodium concentration at short-term follow-up is predictive of long-term survival. These findings might have diagnostic and treatment-related implications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)819-824
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Internal Medicine
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2015


  • Characterization
  • Distribution
  • Etiology


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