The Sensitivity of Grid-Connected Synchronverters with Respect to Measurement Errors

Zeev Kustanovich*, Florian Reissner, Shivprasad Shivratri, George Weiss

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The synchronverter algorithm is a way to control a switched mode power converter that connects a DC energy source to the AC power grid. The main features of this algorithm are frequency and voltage droops as well as synthetic inertia, so that the inverter resembles a synchronous generator (SG). Many versions of this algorithm have been proposed and tested, but all share the same 'basic control algorithm', which is based on the equations of a SG. We analyze the sensitivity of the output currents of a synchronverter, with respect to the measurement errors. We show that some of the sensitivity functions exhibit high gains at the relevant frequencies, leading to distorted grid currents, which makes the use of this inverter control algorithm problematic. We then do a similar analysis assuming that we have controlled current sources available at the grid output of the converter, that we control using virtual currents generated in the algorithm. The virtual currents are flowing through virtual output inductors, that we can choose to be significantly larger than the actual output inductors. We show that using the current sources reduces the sensitivity considerably, thus indicating a better approach to synchronverter design.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9522130
Pages (from-to)118985-118995
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021


  • Inverter
  • Park transformation
  • current control
  • frequency droop
  • inertia
  • synchronverter
  • virtual impedance
  • virtual synchronous machine
  • voltage droop


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