It is well-known that autoimmunity is significantly more prevalent in females. Growing evidence indicates that genes located on the X chromosome may play a role in autoimmunity and immune dysregulation, as also indicated by the frequent association of autoimmune phenomena in patients with X-linked primary immune deficiencies (PIDs). Hence, this group of genetic disorders is of particular interest to study PID-causing genes in the setting of more complex autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on the mechanisms leading to the autoimmune phenomena that are associated with the different X-linked PIDs, and on the intriguing interplay between immune dysregulation and immune deficiency in this unique setting.
- Primary immune deficiencies