The Relationship Between Stress and Performance: The Moderating Effect of Hardiness

Mina Westman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

93 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of hardiness to stress and to performance, and to explore its moderating effect on the relationship between stress and performance. Three hundred twenty-six officer cadets in the Israel Defense Forces completed self-report stress questionnaires during four critical course events and hardiness questionnaires at the beginning and end of the course. As hypothesized, hardiness was consistently negatively related to experienced stress. It was also consistently positively related to objectively assessed performance throughout the course and in the subsequent course, and to the first on-the-job performance appraisal a year later. In addition to its main effects, hardiness buffered the cadets from the detrimental effects of stress on performance. The processes by which hardiness affects performance are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-155
Number of pages15
JournalHuman Performance
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Sep 1990


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