The profile of chronic hyperplastic candidiasis: a clinico-pathological study

Orit Winocur-Arias*, Ayelet Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Yehonatan Ben-Zvi, Gavriel Chaushu, Jeremy Edel, Marilena Vered, Ilana Kaplan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aims of this study were investigation of clinical presentation, systemic factors, and long-term malignant transformation rate in chronic hyperplastic candidiasis versus leukoplakia. This is a retrospective case-controlled study of cases with chronic hyperplastic candidiasis and leukoplakia without dysplasia, diagnosed between 2000 and 2013. A database was created, and all additional biopsies from the same cases were searched up to 2022, for records of oral malignant transformation. Associations between microscopic diagnoses and clinical features of lesions and clinical outcomes of patients were performed. A study database included 116 patients, allocated to the group diagnosed with chronic hyperplastic candidiasis (CHC-group, 62) and to the group of leukoplakia without dysplasia (LKP-group, 54). Tongue and buccal mucosa were most frequently recorded in both groups. In CHC-group, significantly fewer cases presented as white lesions compared to LKP-group (P < 0.001); more were ulcerated or exophytic (P = 0.006 and P = 0.003, respectively). History of head and neck malignancy was significantly more frequent in CHC-group (P = 0.005), as were chemotherapy, (P = 0.019) radiotherapy (P = 0.0265), and immune-related conditions (P = 0.03). Within the follow-up period (2000–2022), in CHC-group, two cases (3.2%) had malignant transformation at the site of original biopsy, one was recurrence of previous carcinoma. In LKP-group, two cases (3.7%) had newly diagnosed carcinoma and one at the site of original biopsy; no significant differences were found between groups. In conclusion, medical background of immune-related conditions, head and neck malignancy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy may play a role in predisposing for chronic hyperplastic candidiasis. Malignant transformation rate within CHC-group was low, and similar to that within LKP-group, representing a lower transformation rate than expected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-534
Number of pages8
JournalVirchows Archiv
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • Candida
  • Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis
  • Head and neck malignancy
  • Leukoplakia
  • Oral potentially malignant disorder


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