We used a national sample of 100 Israeli enterprises to examine the prevalence and distribution of employee substance-related workplace problems, as well as the prevalence and distribution of alternative programs/policies aimed at addressing such problems among Israeli workplaces. Although 29% of the responding firms reported having handled one or more cases involving employee workplace substance use or impairment, across these firms, only 53 actual cases were reported. Given an average enterprise size of 325 employees, this suggests a workforce prevalence rate for such problems of 0.16%. Only 10% of the enterprises studied offered any type of substance-related employee assistance, and only 12% included a specific reference to substance use in their discipline policy. The social policy and workplace implications of these findings are discussed.